Martin Michalak had two known wives – Agnieszka (Agnes) Sobczak, with whom he immigrated to the United States from Poland, and Franziska (Frances) Drewicz, who emigrated from Poland to the United States following Agnieszka’s death.
A baptismal record and a 1900 U.S. Census entry state that Agnieszka is Theresa’s mother. The same relationship implied in a ship’s manifest. Two records state that Theresa Michalak is the daughter of Franziska, a 1933 newspaper article and a 1937 deed.
In spite of the direct evidence to the contrary, the evidence strongly suggests that Agnieszka Sobczak, not Franziska Drewicz, is the mother of Theresa Michalak.
Martin Michalack and wife Agnes immigrated to the United States from Poland in April 1889. Along with them on the ship’s passenger list is a nine month old, Theresa Michalack. The name and age of the infant would have likely been provided by Martin or Agnes. No relationship is expressly provided; however, a parent-child relationship may be implied.
A baptismal record for the daughter of Martinus Michalak and Agnes Sobczak, Teresia, was recorded in Janowiec Parish, Poland in 1886. This is direct evidence that supports the implied relationship in the ship’s passenger list.
The 1900 U.S. Census entry for Anges also lists a daughter, Theresa. The family’s surname is Mehagi; however, the household matches the known family. In addition, the year of immigration is 1888. While this is not an exact match, the close timeframe and passage of time are likely explanations for the difference.
In 1937, following the death of her husband, Martin Michalak, Frances names Theresa Skalska as her daughter, among other children in a deed. The information contained within the deed would have been provided by Frances – the source is original and the information on her children would be primary. Frances would be a reliable source of the identities of her own children.
A 1933 newspaper article details an automobile accident in which Frances is named as Theresa’s mother. This corroborates the information contained in the 1937 deed. It is unknown who would have provided the information on the relationship to the newspaper article’s author. Possibilities include the women themselves, the police or their report, or another party involved. Therefore, the relationship may have been assumed rather than expressly stated by either of the women.
Franziska Drewicz immigrated to the United States from Poland in 1906. In the ship’s passenger list, the person she is to join is Martin Michalak, her bridegroom. This is one year following the death of Agnieszka.
On the 1910 U.S. Census, women are asked how many children were born to them and how many were still living. For Franziska, the response is two children born, but none living. Since Theresa was born in 1886 and was still living as late as 1937, this is inconsistent with the other sources identifying Theresa as her daughter.
The parent-child relationship between Theresa and Agnieszka is established only seven days following the birth of Theresa in her baptismal record. Given that she subsequently immigrated to the United States with Agnieszka and is later located in the same household some years later provides additional support to this conclusion. Also, since Franziska did not immigrate to the United States and marry Martin until the year after Agnieszka’s death, when Theresa was approximately nineteen years old, it is unlikely that she was Theresa’s birth mother. Therefore, based on the evidence obtained to date, Agnieszka Sobczak is the mother of Theresa Michalak.
The newspaper article and deed would have been more accurate to refer to Theresa as Franziska’s stepdaughter. However, as Theresa’s mother died and Franziska likely immigrated to the United States and married Martin to care for the children he still had living at home, she may have simply referred to all the children as hers and not quantified the relationship any further.
 Passenger Lists of Vessels Arriving at Baltimore, MD, 1820-1891, microfilm publication M255 (Washington, D.C.: National Archives and Records Service, 1973), roll 45, Theresa Michalack entry, p. 5.
 Janowiec Parish, Roman Catholic Church, “Baptizatorum, 1883-1908” pp. 185, entry 78, baptism of Teresia Michalak, 17 October 1886; FHL microfilm 2,290,965, item 3.
 1900 U. S. Census, Maryland, population schedule, Anne Arundel County, Brooklyn Town, enumeration district (ED) 10, sheet 19B, dwelling 224, family 411, Agnes Mehagi household; digital images, FamilySearch.org (http://www.familysearch.org : accessed 16 December 2012); citing NARA microfilm publication T623, roll 1240605.
 Baltimore, Maryland, Superior Court Land Records, MSA CE 168-5707 SLC 5699, 1937-1937: p. 512; digital image, Maryland State Archives (http://mdlandrec.net : accessed June 2012).
 “Six Baltimoreans Hurt in Delaware Auto Crash,” The Baltimore Sun, 7 August 1933, p. 14; digital images, ProQuest.com (http://www.proquest.com : accessed 16 November 2012), ProQuest Historical Newspapers.
 “Baltimore Passenger Lists, 1820-1948,” digital images, Ancestry.com (http://www.ancestry.com : accessed 13 May 2012), entry for Franziska Drewicz, age 31, arrived Baltimore, Maryland, February 1906 aboard the Frankfurt; citing NARA microfilm publication RG36, roll 51.
 Baltimore City Health Department, death certificate B80448 (1905), Agnes Michalak; Maryland State Archives, Annapolis.
 1910 U. S. Census, Maryland, population schedule, Ward 1, Baltimore City, enumeration district (ED) 2, sheet 14A, dwelling 217, family 252, Martin Michalak household; digital images, Ancestry.com (http://www.ancestry.com : accessed 13 March 2010); citing NARA microfilm publication T624, roll 552.